Task 1: Sherlock

Simon Gilberg s3379761
Maria Barboa s3379918

Insights

  • Effective transmedia has to be justified by the story
  • Transmedia writers must be part of the project early on, even if the anchor text is the only text set to be consumed by most of the audience
  • Characters have to remain consistent across media
  • The question of co-construction and how much, if any, interactivity will be present in some of the platforms

 

summary by Simon Gilberg s3379761

Holmes in the Small Screen
The Television Contexts of Sherlock
Tom Steward

‘In the flexi- narrative format, showrunners maintain larger, framing narrative arcs while writers work on stand-alone episodes, as was certainly the case with Sherlock’s first season, as Gatiss and Moffat wrote the first and last episode.’

This quote reflects a long-established and strengthening idea surrounding the role of writers on TV series as producers, or showrunners, ultimately in charge of the intellectual property and guiding its form and narrative development throughout its production. This includes having a large amount of creative control over the crew involved, including other writers, and also who is cast.

In most cases, while these showrunners will maintain overall control of the show, they will often ask other writers to come in and fill in much of the series, the showrunners content in designing the overall narrative arc, perhaps running over one series or season, or the entirety of the programme.

This is also applicable to the topic of transmedia as bringing in other writers to write transmedia content is highly likely, as is the case with Sherlock. That said, the showrunners do maintain an overall control of the story and integrate into their story world. This control from above allows them to see the big picture, and to maintain consistency throughout the platforms.

However, one question raised is how audience interaction can impact this process. Already, despite its closed-off, “official” approach, Sherlock has incorporated fan content, at least in the sense of fan theories. How does the relationship with a showrunner, or in this case, a storyrunner, change when the audience is given power over the narrative, or attempts to influence it?

 

summary by Mar Barboa s3379918

‘The Literary, Televisual and Digital Adventures of the Beloved Detective’ from Sherlock and Transmedia Fandom : Essays on the BBC Series

(Busse & Stein, 2012)

In the introduction to the their book, Busse and Stein introduce the discussion of the transmedia nature of the BBC’s Sherlock. Referencing the original stories by Conan Doyle, they explore the evolution of the famous detective throughout the multiple adaptations of his adventures – specifically his reinvention as a man of the digital age in Sherlock.

Busse and Stein argue that the show recasts Sherlock Holmes as a “millennial thinker”. He is a modern man, comfortable with technology. Yet, he remains recognizable through the inclusion of cultural references and meaning that have become iconic of the character (the deerstalker, the violin, the pipe).

By analyzing the transmedia characteristic of the show’s narrative, Busse and Stein raise issues about what constitutes a transmedia extension. They put into question Henry Jenkins definition of transmedia, and subsequently ask whether a revision that allows non-official content to be considered part of the narrative thread is necessary.

The authors mention examples of what they call “fan-instigated transmedia”, including a Japanese manga that continues the adventures of Sherlock and John in a different media platform. They argue that such texts could very well be considered transmedia branches from the story of Sherlock, despite the fact that they exist outside the BBC’s jurisdiction.

 

Bibliography:

Busse, L &Stein, L 2012, ‘Introduction: The Literary, Televisual and Digital Adventures of the Beloved Detective’ in Sherlock and Transmedia Fandom : Essays on the BBC Series, e-book, accessed 27 March 2014, <http://RMIT.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=928937&gt;.

Christy, D 2014, ‘A Primer On Transmedia & Design’, lecture commissioned by RMIT

Denham, J 2014, ‘Sherlock series 3: Fans react on Twitter’, The Independent 02 January, available at www.independent.co.uk, accessed on 18 March 2012

Evans, EJ 2012, ‘Shaping Sherlocks – Institutional Practice and the Adaptation of Character’, in Sherlock and Transmedia Fandom : Essays on the BBCSeries, McFarland & Company, Inc., North Carolina, pp. 102-117.

Harvey, CB 2012 ‘Sherlock’s Webs – What the Detective Remembered from the Doctor About Transmediality’, in Sherlock and Transmedia Fandom : Essays on the BBC Series, McFarland & Company, Inc., North Carolina, p. 118.

Hills, M 2012, ‘Sherlock’s Epistemological Economy and the Value of “Fan” Knowledge – How Producer-Fans Play the (Great) Game of Fandom in Sherlock and Transmedia Fandom : Essays on the BBC Series, e-book, accessed 21 March 2014, <http://RMIT.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=928937&gt;.

Polasek, AD 2013, ‘Surveying the Post-Millennial Sherlock Holmes: A Case for the Great Detective as a Man of Our Times’, Adaptation, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 384–393.

Polasek, A 2012, ‘Winning “The Grand Game” – Sherlock and the Fragmentation of Fan Discourse in Sherlock and Transmedia Fandom : Essays on the BBC Series, e-book, accessed 21 March 2014, <http://RMIT.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=928937&gt;.

Poore, B 2013 ‘Sherlock Holmes and the Leap of Faith: The Forces of Fandom and Convergence in Adaptations of the Holmes and Watson Series’,Adaptation, Transmedia Storytelling and Participatory Culture, vol.6 no.2, pp. 159-171. Available from: Oxford Journals, accessed 24 March 2014.

Stewart, T 2012, ‘Holmes in the Small Screen – The Television Contexts of Sherlock’, in Sherlock and Transmedia Fandom : Essays on the BBC Series, McFarland & Company, Inc., North Carolina, p. 140.

Advertisements

Task 1: Scarecrow Campaign

Line Jensen (3276570)
Kristopher Vanston (3282112)

http://landofthebloodyunknown.blogspot.com.au/2014/04/scarecrow-campaign-research-task.html

Academic Reviews

Scolari, C. A. 2009. Transmedia storytelling: Implicit consumers, narrative worlds, and branding in contemporary media production. International Journal of Communication, 3 p. 21.

Scolari discuss in his article how transmedia with its range of possibilities, and its consumers has changed the way big businesses strategies their branding and ways of marketing.Transmedia not only affects the text but also includes transformations in the production and consumption processes. Researchers and producers visualise new business opportunities for the media market as new generations of consumers develop the skills to deal with the flow of stories and become ‘hunters of information from multiple sources.’

Economic subjects no longer try to sell a product or service by mean of persuasive advertising. Now the objectives are much more ambitious; they aim to create a symbolic universe endured with meaning. Scolari propose that the brand is a device that can produce a discourse, give it a meaning, and communicate this to audiences. The brand expresses values and is presented as an interpretative contract between the companies and consumers; it proposes a series of values and the consumers accept to be a part of this world. Therefore brand appear as a narrative or possible worlds since they constitute complex discourse universes with a strong narrative imprint.

Line Jensen s3276570

Veglis, A. 2012. From Cross Media to Transmedia Reporting in Newspaper Articles. Publishing research quarterly, 28 (4), pp. 313–324.

As we deconstruct the foundations which construct transmedia, we can clearly see the relevance of today’s traditional media having to adapt, compete and integrate with the ever changing landscape of this new emerging media. It is without a doubt that print media specifically has been challenged by the digital age. Andrew Veglis published a journal artical in where he outlines his concern with the emergence of cross and transmedia culture where he states “…in order to guarantee long-term success with audiences in the future, it will be vital to change from a single product [print media] oriented to a multimedia content and user-oriented approach.” (Veglis, 2012, pp. 313).

Kris Vanston s3282112

Key points – insights

Our key points/insights to transmedia and convergence culture that we would think valuable to us and our peers as media student.

• Transmedia storytelling are engaging our brains at the intuitive; sensory and executive levels.

• Transmedia strategies create many points of entry that reach and link multiple demographics and target different user needs to effectively expand the customer base.

• There is a new consumer brain, thanks to participatory culture with an on-demand information.

• Transmedia storytelling creates a meaningful relationship between companies and audience.

• The sophisticated transmedia landscape is full of social networks and 24/7 interactive information.

References

Jenkins, Henry, 2007. Transmedia Storytelling 101

Scolari, C. A. 2009. Transmedia storytelling: Implicit consumers, narrative worlds, and branding in contemporary media production. International Journal of Communication, 3 p. 21.

Veglis, A. 2012. From Cross Media to Transmedia Reporting in Newspaper Articles. Publishing research quarterly, 28 (4), pp. 313–324.

Bibliography.

Jenkins, Henry, 2007. Transmedia Storytelling 101

Long,Geoffrey A,2001. Transmedia Storytelling: business aesthetics and production at the Jim Henson Company.

Scolari, C. A. 2009. Transmedia storytelling: Implicit consumers, narrative worlds, and branding in contemporary media production. International Journal of Communication, 3 p. 21.

Veglis, A. 2012. From Cross Media to Transmedia Reporting in Newspaper Articles. Publishing research quarterly, 28 (4), pp. 313–324.

Brandstories.net

Convergenceishere.weebly.com

Forbes.com

Task 1: The Avengers

Amy Bryans (s3331007)
Simon Toppin (3327537)
Tash Zafari (s3349725)

 

INDEPENDENT READING SUMMARIES: 

AMY BRYANS:  

Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide

Dr Henry Jenkins

 

Jenkins’ award-winning book explores and analyses the rapidly expanding media landscape that has been transformed by the Internet, digital technology and new media. This transformation has influenced the relationships between audiences and media producers dramatically. With audiences able to share and create more than ever; industries are feeling the pressure to deliver sophisticated and ‘interactive’ media products, yet producers are also enjoying a newfound power to franchise across many media platforms. This relationship between audiences and producers forms a large part of the book, and is studied through the “phenomenon of reality television”, by examining the television shows Survivor and American Idol.

Jenkins explores the concept that a piece of media can be transformed into a whole world of interlinking books, movies, websites and images. Jenkins is considered an expert in “transmedia”, and states, “transmedia storytelling is the art of world making.” This “world making” has created enormous opportunities for marketing and audience expansion, while potentially giving audiences a new and empowering role in consumption – now that the media experience all depends on enticing the audience to delve into the world and explore. Jenkins explores transmedia through the case study of The Matrix franchise, one of the original examples of fully-fledged transmedia.

(Jenkins, Henry: Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, New York University Press, 2006.)

TASH ZAFARI: 

Transmedia Storytelling: Implicit Consumers, Narrative Worlds, and Branding in Contemporary Media Productions

Carols Alberto Scolari

 

Transmedia storytelling is described through the reading as, “stories told across multiple media. At present time, the most significant stories tend to flow across multiple platforms.” Scolari goes further and discusses transmedia storytelling through a different type of narrative structure, which expands through different languages (verbal, ironic, etc.) and media (cinema, comics, television, video games, etc.). Scolari cites Dinehart about the importance of semiotics and cognitive psychological abilities. This idea describes that the viewer/user/player transforms the story through his or her own natural cognitive psychological abilities, therefore enabling the creations to surpass medium. It is during transmedial play that the ultimate story agency, and decentralized authorship is realized. This then makes the viewer/user/player the true producer of the creation.

Media as stated above has many platforms, Scolari points out that the story told through one type of media like comics is not the same story that is told on television or in cinema. The combination of the different media and languages, participate and contribute to the construction of the transmedia narrative world.

Scolari also addresses the branding and text to subject’s categories. He outlines that transmedia storytelling is apart of the ever growing and expanding consumption process. Researches and producers see new business opportunities for the media market, where they have realized that consumers are becoming the ‘hunters’ of information from multiple sources. Producers have the capacity to go that one step further with branding, using their brand to exploit the transmedia storytelling, utilizing their intellectual properties across multiple different channels.

Scolari, C A 2009, ‘Transmedia Storytelling: Implicit Consumers, Narrative Worlds, and Branding in Contemporary Media Productions,’ Journal of Communication, vol 3, viewed 18/3/2014. <ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/download/477/336‎>

SIMON TOPPIN: 

Character, Audience, Agency and Transmedia Drama

Elizabeth Jane Evans

 

Evans looks at several different transmedia sources, using the Marvel Comics universe and BBC drama ‘Spooks’, to illustrate points about transmedia. Evans speaks of “the need for a new model of understanding audience engagement with audio-visual, fictional entertainment”, (Evans, EJ. 2008, p197) and sees transmedia as “the way that technologies have been used to extend dramas onto multiple media outlets… that are capable of providing different kinds of entertainment in their own right”. (Evans, EJ. 2008, p198) One interesting point that Evans makes concerns what she calls, ‘the myth of interactivity’. This is the idea that no audience member can truly alter the course of a project due to the fact that the options become restricted, naturally, upon the project’s completion. Instead, she refers through Barthes and a later academic named Lewis, to make the case that audience power comes from an audience’s interpretation of a text, instead of from the notion that the audience has any real outlets to influence what happens in the plot, or in the inner world of the characters.

Evans then goes on to describe some familiar territory in regards to transmedia – for audiences, most importantly, above any notion of agency, interactivity or even plot, is having relatable characters that drive the story. It seems to me, despite the modern fetishisation of non-linear narratives and fragmented, multi-media storytelling, ‘the basics’ are still the most important part of any story.

(Evans, Elizabeth Jane. 2008. ‘Character, Audience Agency and Transmedia Drama’. In ‘Media Culture Study’. Sage.)

—————————————-

SYNTHESIS OF RELEVANT INSIGHTS/LEARNING:

Synthesis

Simon Toppin Tash Zirafi Amy Bryans

  • Transmedia, is “the way that technologies have been used to extend dramas onto multiple media outlet… that are capable of providing different kinds of entertainment in their own right”. (Evans, EJ. 2008, p198)
  • Cognitive psychological ability plays a part in transmedia storytelling! A great example is a child’s film, however adults can also enjoy it with hidden media language.

 

  • Producers can be very profit driven and abuse the transmedia platforms through their intellectual property and branding. Sometimes it can become about the money more than the audiences’ enjoyment of the narrative world.

 

When discussing transmedia and convergence culture it is impossible to discuss audience, the consumers, without discussing the producers, the creators.

“Media companies are learning how to accelerate the flow of media content across delivery channels to expand revenue opportunities, broaden markets, and reinforce viewer commitments”.(Jenkins, 2006)  Increasingly, media industries are being forced to create worlds and transmedia opportunities for their franchises and audiences are expecting that media franchises span many platforms. The “singular” experience is a dying thing, we no longer just read a book – we see the movie based on the book, buy the backpack, visit the site to see which character we are most like via a quiz and talk about it on the Facebook page. The Avengers is an enormous example of media producers, like Marvel, harnessing transmedia to enormous advantage. Henry Jenkins, an expert in transmedia, has even said that Marvel, “(has) brought the concept of a shared universe to the mainstream in a way that no other film company has”. I will be discussing The Avengers and the role of the Marvel producers in the enormous success of the franchise thanks to transmedia in the framework of Henry Jenkins’ statement:

“Industry insiders use the term “extension” to refer to their efforts to expand the potential markets by moving content across different delivery systems, “synergy” to refer the economic opportunities represented by their ability to own and control all of those manifestations, and “franchise” to refer to their coordinated effort to brand and market fictional content under these new conditions. Extensions, synergy and franchising are pushing media industries to embrace convergence”. (Jenkins, 2006) 

When Jenkins uses the word “extension”, what he is really discussing is media across various platforms. The key to extension in The Avengers, is the audience it has created has never before existed. Before the reboot of ‘The Avengers’ franchise, the Marvel universe existed almost exclusively for the comic book nerds. Now Marvel’s ‘Avengers’ commands a diverse and international audience.

The market now caters for all kinds of fans. The comics still exist for the die-hard “purist” fans, both old and new, the television show “Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D” exists for fans who enjoyed the movies and want to watch more, internet content exists for the lighter fan and the movies are for everyone in all of these categories PLUS the rest of the non-Avenger fan world. If “transmedia storytelling is the art of world making”, (Jenkins, 2006) then Marvel truly succeeded in that respect.

“To fully experience any fictional world, consumers must assume the role of hunters and gatherers, chasing down bits of the story across media channels, comparing notes with each other via online discussion groups, and collaborating to ensure that everyone who invests time and effort will come away with a satisfying entertainment experience”. (Jenkins, 2006) 

Academic Elizabeth Evans is sceptical about the word ‘interactivity’ and quotes Kerr to the end that interactivity, “must be regarded as a political, rather than a descriptive term, as it is used by many new media advocates to emphasise the user’s control over the medium while de-emphasising the medium’s control over the user”. (Kerr et al in Evans, EJ. 2008, p 200) In other words, ‘interactive’ is really just marketing propaganda as all the potential outcomes have already been decided in advance. Certainly true of the Avengers “interactive” website and game, that involves clicking on highlighted parts of an extended trailer for the film.

However, Roland Barthes said that it is the audience, not the author who create meaning, Evans suggests that given the ‘myth of interactivity’, the audiences’ power comes from interpreting the text, instead of being able to physically tamper with the plot or the characters.

Large scale, West Coast transmedia projects, like the Avengers and the wider Marvel Franchise, have extremely vocal and demanding fan bases. These fan bases must, through sheer force of will and expectation, have an impact on the final iterations of transmedia storytelling. In other words, the creators, in fear of potential audience reaction, must work within the diegetic world of the characters and not stray too far from established conventions and expectations.

In support of this point, Justin Lewis says, “the power to produce meaning lies nor within the TV message or within the viewer, but in the interaction between the two”. (Lewis, in Evans. 1991, p58)

Jonah Weiland, executive producer at ComicBookResources.com, said of Kevin Feige, producer of Thor, X-Men and The Avengers, “Kevin actually knows what we want. Other studios that make superhero movies often ignore the essence of the character”.

Paying attention to the ‘essence of the character’ can be especially important when “one critical blog post can create an online brush fire”. (New York Times)

Evans says that “characters are a central, if not the central point of engagement for an audience” (Evans. 2008, p203) and quotes someone from a focus group, ‘I can forgive a lot of problems with the plot if I like certain characters and enjoy them’.

 REFERENCES: 

Ben Moore 2013, 5 Avengers Comic Book Stories to Read Before Seeing ‘The Avengers’ Movie, Screen Rant, 18/3/14 <http://screenrant.com/avengers-comic-book-stories-movie-benm-166878/>

Black, JB 2012, ‘Avengers Assemble! The five movies that lead to The Avengers,’ The Washington Times, 3rd, May, 18/3/14, <http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/movies-toto/2012/may/3/getting-caught-avengers-video/>

Scolari, C A 2009, ‘Transmedia Storytelling: Implicit Consumers, Narrative Worlds, and Branding in Contemporary Media Productions,’ Journal of Communication, vol 3, viewed 18/3/2014. <ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/download/477/336‎>

Scott Harris, 2012, ‘The Avengers:’ 8 Things You May Have Missed the First Time Around, discusses moments during film that the audience may not have picked up on, 25th of September, 18/3/14 <http://www.nextmovie.com/blog/avengers-movie-easter-eggs/>

Task 1: A.I Artificial Intelligence

Xuanling Li (Candy) (s3368911)
Yu-Han Yang (Angela) (s3375332)
Ruirui Zhang (Alice) (s3388441)

1. Source: Abba T. 2009, ‘Hybrid stories: examining the future of transmedia narrative’, Science Fiction Film and Television, 2.1, Apr. 2009, p59, Liverpool university Press, UK.

Since 2001, in the field of SF (Science Fiction) film or drama, there is an increasing trend about recombining the web, mobile telephony and print media with established broadcast platforms, in order to produce a transmedia work that interleaves online and offline experiences to contemporary savvy audience says Abba (2009). By especially focusing on the emergence of ARG (Alternate Reality games), firstly, Abba discusses ARG represents a form that contributing to SF transmedia storytelling process. Additionally, digital media provide opportunity and possibility for a story be transposed from their original form and be reconstituted to new ends in the networked ecology. Besides, the emergence of a multimedia culture is able to influence SF through its specific qualities of multi-platform narratives and the means are used to understand SF’s story line. Regarding with audiences, the narrative reality of ARG is combining website-based elements and real-world interactions with filmed media, in order to produce a platform allowing participants to interactively experience the story line development. It is able to demonstrate the desire of participants while they joining the construction of the fictional world. The future of transmedia storytelling defined by Abba, to concern with observing the present rather than predicting the future is an overall form SF taken place since twenty-firstly century. Also the relationship between cultural form and story content has driven the creation of combination of different single independent media forms. Transmedia storytelling are framed by creation and textual meaning, in which its interactive audience continue to embrace their responsibility, a shared part in the building-worlds in both fiction and real world.
(By Candy)

2.Phillips, Andrea (2012) “The Four Creative Purposes for Transmedia” A creator’s guide to transmedia storytelling: how to captivate and engage audiences across multiple platforms. New York: McGraw-Hill (p. 41-54)

“A Creator’s Guide to Transmedia Storytelling” is written by Andrea Phillips, in the book, Phillips guides the creators through the process of telling their stories on multiple media platforms. The book is set up in five parts, which are the Introduction to Transmedia, Storytelling, Structure, Production and The Big Picture. One of the most useful chapters for me, I think it will be “The Four Creative Purpose for Transmedia”. Andrea Phillips warns creators that content have to serve a creative purpose and further the narrative in some way. She also outlines the four primary creative purposes and the reasons for doing transmedia projects, 1.World-buliding 2.Characterization 3. Backstory and exposition 4.Native transmedia. In terms of world-building, Philips defined world-building as an entry-level transmedia storytelling and explains the differences of world-building between text-only work of fiction and transmedia storytelling. This can be further backup with Henry Jenkins’ theory, he identifies world-building as a key trait of the transmedia story. For characterization, Philips points out the serious logistical problems to grapple with when doing characterization work in an interactive medium in different time period, before, during after, iconic state. In terms of backstory and exposition, Philips defined that this is where the line into definitely transmedia gets a lot less blurry and I agree with her, because this is the step to smoothing the transitions between different media platforms. Last, native transmedia, Philips claims that transmedia storytelling is to create a story that is fractured into pieces and convey through multiple media. To create transmedia, instead of just telling the story, has to be entirely and natively transmedia from start to finish which in order to give an experience to the audience.
(By Angela)

3. Scolari CA, 2009, ‘Transmedia Storytelling: Implicit Consumers, Narrative Worlds, and Branding in Contemporary Media Production’, International Journal of Communication, no. 3, pp. 586-606.

The journal article ‘Transmedia Storytelling: Implicit Consumers, Narrative Worlds, and Branding in Contemporary Media Production’ is written by Carlos Alberto Scolari and published on International Journal of Communication magazine in 2009, which is a theoretical reflection on ‘transmedia storytelling’ from a perspective that integrates semiotics and narratology in the context of media studies. Moreover, the article analyzed how new multimodal narrative structures create different implicit consumers and construct a narrative world. The article also analyzed transmedia storytelling from the perspective of a semiotics of branding.

First of all, Scolari identified transmedia storytelling at the most basic level is telling stories across multiple media. However, at the present time, the most significant stories tend to flow cross multiple media platforms. In the second part of article, Scolari introduced a semio-narratological approach to transmedia storytelling, and compared two stories: Steve Canyon vs. Jack Bauer. Thirdly, Scolari discussed the strategies for expanding fictional worlds and the relationship between transmedia storytelling and branding. Scolari emphasized that ‘in transmedia storytelling, the brand is expressed by the characters, topics, and aesthetic style of the fictional world.’

Finally, to conclude the article, Scolari recommend that future research in this ambit should refine the definition of transmedia storytelling and analyze more transmedia storytelling experiences to establish the properties, limits, and possibilities of the specific kind of narrative structure.

(Alice)

Task 1: Batman

Michael Johnston (s3330083)
Jonathon Leschinski (s3328308)

Jonathan Leschinski’s Primary Source

Transmedia Storytelling: Business, Aesthetics and Production at the Jim Henson Company

Oft transmedia is referred to as a modern phenomena,  Long provides a refreshing analysis by examining a franchise that is 32 years old. Long does this by first mapping the field of Transmedia, starting with Henry Jenkins’ work as the cornerstone and then expanding to incorporate additional insights by Mark Hanson, Christy Dena, Marc Ruppel, and others. Long goes on to explore how the concepts of worldbuilding and negative capability can use Kristevan intertextuality to guide audiences through transmedia narratives, but perhaps the most useful insight is his repurposing of Roland Barthes’ notion of hermeneutic codes; subdividing them into six possible classes of questions that arise in readers’ minds when reading a text, and how these can be utilised in analysing and improving the links between extensions in transmedia stories. These are, as Barthes describes, lists of “the various (formal) terms by which an enigma can be distinguished, suggested, formulated, held in suspense, and finally disclosed”

As each new question is posed, the imaginations of the audience spark to life, positing possible answers and asking even further questions.

– Cultural hermeneutic codes are questions raised by costumes, architecture, artwork, and other elements that refer to greater cultures.

– Character hermeneutic codes refer to characters or aspects of characters that do not appear on screen.

– Chronological hermeneutic codes concern events that happened in the past, or in the future.

– Geographic hermeneutic codes are questions about important places that either don’t appear in the main story or appear only briefly.

– Environmental hermeneutic codes are references to the flora, fauna, or other scientific components of the world.

– Ontological. Perhaps the rarest hermeneutic codes make the audience wonder about the very existential nature of the story they’re consuming.

the hermeneutic codes should all be fulfilled in the course of the narrative

The takeaway lesson, in Long’s own words is;

A storyteller looking to craft a potential transmedia narrative should carefully craft the world in which that story exists, and then make passing references to other cultures, characters, events, places, sciences or philosophies of that world during the course of the narrative to simultaneously spark audience imaginations through negative capability and provide potential openings for future migratory cues.

KEY INSIGHTS

  • Determine whether the story’s world is open or closed; if it’s closed, crack it open.
    When scripting and analyzing the core text (or anchor text) try and understand the closed loops within the narrative, and learn them so yo u can break them open and give the consumer a brand new experience derived from familiar origins.

  • A transmedia story is often the story of a world 
    Focus on creating a rich world, one that many co-existing stories may transpire, but don’t lose sight of an engaging focused narrative.

  • Look for ways to graphically and systematically display relationships.
    How can you expect the consumer to be able to follow the story and feel rewarded if you get lost in its creation. When sculpting a transmedia environment, nut out a way to visually document the world and its interconnectedness. This may also serve as a useful artifact for testing and execution.

  • Create gaps throughout the project
    Work in areas of intrigue and expansion, so as to always to give the consumer the opportunity to inject parts of their own imagination. This will result in greater levels of engagement, but also provide pathways for further expansion.

  • Keep it modern
    Know your audience, and understand how they will participate in the Transmedia project in with their current media habits.

 

References

Alonso, J. B., Chang, A., Robert, D. and Breazeal, C. 2011. Toward a dynamic dramaturgy: an art of presentation in interactive storytelling. pp. 311–312.

Gillan, J. 2013. Transmedia Television: Audiences, New Media, and Daily Life by Elizabeth Evans (review). Cinema Journal, 52 (4), pp. 167–171.

Herní, Ez-Pérez, M. and Rodríguez, J. G. F. 2013. Serial Narrative, Intertextuality, and the Role of Audiences in the Creation of a Franchise: An Analysis of the Indiana Jones Saga from a Cross-Media Perspective. Mass Communication and Society, (ahead-of-print), pp. 1–28.

Merkin, A. D. 2010. The management of transmedia production in an era of media and digital convergence.

Scott, S. 2011. Revenge of the fanboy: convergence culture and the politics of incorporation. Los Angeles, California: University of Southern California.

Toschi, A. 2009. The Entertainment Revolution: Does Transmedia Storytelling Really Enhance the Audience Experience. California State University Fullerton, pp. 33–170.

Veglis, A. 2012. From Cross Media to Transmedia Reporting in Newspaper Articles. Publishing research quarterly, 28 (4), pp. 313–324.

Zingerle, A. and Kronman, L. 2011. Transmedia Storytelling and Online Representations–Issues of Trust on the Internet. pp. 144–151.

Whysoseriousredux.com. n.d. Why So Serious? Redux. [online] Available at: http://www.whysoseriousredux.com/[Accessed: 26 Mar 2014].

Task 1: Godzilla

Evan Raif (3376493)
Connor Woods (3381539)
Kelly Chen (3346912)

Evan Raif

Philips outlines the 4 reasons why media producers may choose to present their work using transmedia.

 

World building

 

World building is perhaps the most convincing reason as to why a producer will choose transmedia over another specific medium. In movies and novels, a world is build by visually showing or explaining respectiviely.  In transmedia, a piece of the world can be given ‘for your audience to play with’

 

Characterization

 

In transmedia, a story can further discover a characters motivations and personality without detracting or ruining the anchor text. Though she notes that this can be problematic for some producers, if they make the characters static (not changing), as it is the change of personality and motivations that the audience is interested in.

 

Backstory and exposition

 

Transmedia can also be used to add a deeper level to all facets of the world through backstory and exposition.  This can be achieved creatively by segueing in the middle of an action sequence, or quite as simply as explaining in greater detail why a characters has acted the way they have in the anchor text.  Non-linearity is a tool that is easily harnessed in transmedia.

 

Native Transmeida

 

Stories native to transmedia have been developed specifically to be fragmented across multiple media platforms. This means that the story is singular (in the same way that in a movie there is one single story), as opposed to stories that are foreign to transmedia, which will usually contain one story per medium.

 

 

Phillips, Andrea. (2012) “A Creator’s guide to Transmedia Storytelling: How to Captivate and engage audiences across multiple platforms”

 

 

Conor Woods

Carnegie Mellon University ETC Press presents:
Transmedia Storytelling:
Imagery, Shapes and Techniques – Chapter 6 – Different Approaches.

 

In this, the closing chapter of Max Giovagnoli’s explanation and exploration of the practice of Transmedia, four well respected and worldwide acknowledged Transmedia specialists answer four questions about the topic:

“- Your personal idea of transmedia storytelling asks audiences to…

– Your personal idea of transmedia storytelling drives authors to…

– When you look for the best idea for a transmedia project, you start thinking to…

– The power of Transmedia Storytelling to tell “inner stories” through different media consists in… “

 

The specialists are:

Drew Davidson – Director of Entertainment Technology Centre – Pittsburgh at Carnegie Mellon University.
Christy Dena – Director of Universe Creation 101, co-writer of the Australian Literature Board’s Writer’s Guide to Making a Digital Living, former Curator of  Transmedia Victoria and writer of the first PhD on Transmedia Practice.

Jeff Gomez – CEO of Starlight Runner Entertainment, collaborator on universes such as Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean, Prince of Persia and Tron, brands like Coca Cola and Mattel, and franchises such as Avatar and Transformers.

Lance Weiler– Sits on a World Economic Forum steering committee for the future of content creation and teaches participatory storytelling at Columbia University.

 

The insights provided by these specialists vary from analysis of the participatory nature of transmedia audiences to the importance of maintaining consistency across platforms. This article is a valuable insight into four transmedia specialists and the practical application of their processes, and is but one chapter of a thoughtful and very useful analysis of transmedia in general.

 

Giovagnoli, M,2011, Transmedia Storytelling: Imagery, Shapes and Techniques.Pittsburgh: ETC Press.)

 

Xinying Chen

Transmedia has two basic aspects: business case and creative vision. For Business case , transmedia storytelling can provide more engagement and more potential points of sale for any given story. While for creative vision there are four purpose to use transmedia. They are worldbuilding, characterization, backstory and exposition and native transmedia.
Worldbuilding is all about efficiently conveying information which fit all the pieces together to make a whole that is bigger than the sum of its parts. Which we can do a fictional corporate website. And let your audience to play with it.
For characterization. Shedding lights on characters’ personality and motivation are important . It can develop the knowledge and connection between audience and characters.
How to shed light it.
– extending characters start with the latest possible moment
–frozen characters before the story start ( making their own interesting things)
–characters evolve over time.
For backstory, transmedia can be used to extend for telling pieces of the story that don’t fit into main narrative or that shed more and deeper light on the events that happen in the story. But we got to be careful, what we put in and timedy it. TM not only can smooth transition between film, shows and books. But also can use to explain why this world works the way it does.
For Native transmedia, it is an experience, the audience has been given in different platforms which is not only telling a story ( one story) . In prequel the entertaining market is succussed. consuming goods market too. It makes more engagement between the audience and films.

Reference:
Phillips, Andrea (2012) “The Four Creative Purposes for Transmedia” New York : McGraw-Hill (p. 41-54)

Task 1 – Star Wars

Star Wars

Stevey-Lee Ginger (s3435382)
Sin Yu Jing (s3470063)
Stephen Holland (s3331243)

=======================================================================================================

LEARNING DOT POINTS:

Defining “transmedia” is a difficult and somewhat contentious thing to do with a lot of debate surrounding its characteristics.
West Coast versus East Coast transmedia. In other words; large-scale or “franchise” transmedia content (stories split into large chunks across limited platforms, such as a Hollywood film, novel and game) versus usually interactive, web-centric transmedia content with smaller narrative pieces delivered across many platforms (and thus requiring more user interaction).
Transmedia is not to be confused with multimedia or crossmedia. Utilising numerous delivery methods or replicating a single story across multiple platforms isn’t enough, it’s also not a simple combination of multiple types of media (eg; text, sound and image).
Spreadability vs. Drillability – the degree to which content can be shared and why that content might be shared versus the ability for a transmedia audience to explore sections of a story’s narrative in-depth.
Continuity vs. Multiplicity – ensuring consistent narrative details and allowing fans to invest in familiar characters and events versus alternate versions or new character developments or perspectives.
Immersion vs. Extractability – the audience enters the world of the story (eg; virtual reality, scavenger hunt) versus the fan taking aspects of the story away with them as resources.
Worldbuilding – transmedia extensions that give depth to the setting/world within which the transmedia story takes place. These relate to time, space and mood and expanding narrative potential.
Seriality – the degree to which a story’s narrative pieces are dispersed across multiple mediums/media, as opposed to perhaps breaking up a single original narrative into discrete pieces and delivering (perhaps in installments) via a single medium.
Subjectivity – relating to perspective; exploring setting or narrative through additional characters, gaining new insights or different sides of events.
Performance – the ability of the transmedia content to extend to fan productions that can become part of the narrative (whether those extensions are welcome or unwelcome). Fans will often seek out avenues to share and discuss such activities (eg; online communities/discussion forums).
STORY is the most important thing in transmedia – without it, you won’t be able to fully engage your audience and send them searching deeper for more information about your world.
MUST. HAVE. CONFLICT.
Make sure you base your conflict on universal human themes. From this you can extract a core need to be further developed and then populated with characters that are in sympathy or conflict with that core need.
Try to base major plot points on events in world history – it adds richness, depth and complexity to your story (and also makes it much easier to keep things interesting for the audience!)
It’s all in the details – it’s the little things that can really engage your viewer; a letter, a map, a language…
Continuity is also crucial – once you have created your world, it’s elements need to be consistent across all the platforms you use so that it is plausible and coherent. This allows the audience to easily become immersed in the world.
The different types of transmedia really influences the design process of your project and each requires different skill sets.
From Dowd, a key pillar to always keep in mind is “One world. Many Stories”. We need to try to create worlds that are spacious and detailed, rich and fertile enough to allow for growth over time with the ability to be slightly different in each medium.
Make sure you choose the right medium for the right story, and vice versa – there are some forms of stories or story elements that work best as a particular medium/on a particular platform.
STORY STORY STORY – make sure that each element/part of the transmedia project is a whole, contained story that can stand alone as a text.
Good story is important, it doesn’t matter how the story is told. Don’t use transmedia to help market your story.
Characters should have a good back-story to support their motivation. Different back-stories can be told through different platforms, in whichever platforms that work best.
Different mediums/platforms helps one single fictional story to reach out to more audiences (comic books target children, novels target young adults, etc)
The audience is their own makers. Transmedia has changed audience behaviours, allowing the audience to make their own content. It lets the audience act as collaborators.
Transmedia requires a lot of collaboration between different companies that are in the different industries – book publishing, film making, website etc.
Producing stories through transmedia storytelling can be cheap. With easy access to the different tools (phone, internet, camera, etc) it can even be free. But it doesn’t have to be cheap.
Not every story requires to be told through transmedia storytelling – it is not a one size fit all thing. Some stories are told better just through a single platform, some stories require different mediums.
Relies on participation from audience.
Different experience for different people – harder for companies to control how people consume their materials. Some might read the novel first, then watch the movie, then play the game; some might have a different sequence when consuming the story.
Marketing strategy for some companies to earn more money. It is not encouraged as it strays away from storytelling.
=======================================================================================================

VIDEO / EMBED CODE (paste link into WordPress for auto embed): https://vimeo.com/90296181

=======================================================================================================
ARTICLE SUMMARIES:

Name: Stevey-Lee Ginger
Article: Seven Myths About Transmedia Storytelling Debunked
Link: https://www.dropbox.com/s/to3uguzye5ggqg3/Seven%20Myths%20About%20Transmedia%20Storytelling%20Debunked.pdf

This article helps to clarify what transmedia is by explaining what it isn’t. Through debunking seven myths about transmedia storytelling, Jenkins tries to explain what people in the production industry (and those interested in it) are getting wrong in regards to defining what exactly constitutes transmedia.

He begins with advising us that transmedia is different elements of story spread across multiple platforms, not just one story re-told on a different platform. Whilst transmedia can be utilised as a promotional strategy and it can include games amongst its constituent elements, the best transmedia is driven by creative elements and games are just one part of the possible transmedia models.

The other key points Jenkins lists include is that transmedia has potential to appeal to a broad audience, it does not necessarily require a large budget, not all stories are cut out for transmedia and should remain single entities and that some transmedia projects have failed, not because audiences have lost interest in transmedia but because the stories being told were not interesting enough to keep an audience engaged.
He finishes by explaining that transmedia is all about giving your fans the chance to dig deeper into the world of the stories they love.

Name: Sin Yu Jing
Article: Transmedia Storytelling 101
Link: http://henryjenkins.org/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html

This article gives an insight about what transmedia storytelling is and why stories are told in this manner. Jenkins explains that transmedia storytelling is a process where different parts of a fiction are distributed throughout different platforms and each platform will have its unique contribution for the storytelling.
Most of the time, transmedia stories are based on complex fictional worlds, not just individual characters or specific plots. This fictional world is buildable, and encourages both readers and writers to dig deeper into content. Extensions in transmedia storytelling have a variety of different functions. It can give audience an insight into the characters and their motivation, provide more information about the fictional world or fill out gaps in between.
Transmedia storytelling can also help a single fictional story reach out to more audiences through the different platforms. Usually, each individual episode can be a standalone piece where audiences can just consume that certain piece of media without having to read or watch the others. However, each piece of media has a unique contribution to the narrative.
A transmedia text does not just give audience information either; it provides the audience with roles and goals. This encourages them to construct their own stories which results in fan-fiction, where fans introduce possible and potential plots.

Name: Stephen Holland
Article: Transmedia Storytelling and Entertainment: An annotated syllabus.

Jenkins, H 2010, ‘Transmedia Storytelling and Entertainment: An annotated syllabus’, Continuum: Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, 24, 6, pp. 943-958, Communication & Mass Media Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 March 2014.

Within his article in the Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Henry Jenkins outlines in teaching transmedia storytelling, including its overall significance and particularly poignant case studies and examples. This article would of particular interest for those wondering what to explore to gain a greater understanding of transmedia.
Jenkins describes his introduction of his concept of transmedia storytelling and the comparison made between himself and other academic, teachers or industry professionals such as Christy Dena.
Jenkins provides an initial definition on page 944: ‘Transmedia storytelling represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes its own unique contribution to the unfolding of the story’. He then explains where this definition and focus on narrative leaves certain elements; giving the example of action figures as an extension of Star Wars.
Jenkins explains that often, when dealing with the sheer scale of some of these texts, it can be extraordinarily difficult and daunting. A better approach would be to analyse sections, rather than the whole.
Jenkins states that many people cling to the idea that transmedia stories depend on strict continuity, whilst his work on artefacts such as superhero comics has shown a different pattern, where simply character continuity is enough to satisfy the audience or reader.
Jenkins also reinforces at a number of points that whilst transmedia is very much here, it’s still developing as a practice, with potential for further refinement, analysis and new ideas.

=======================================================================================================

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Allen, H n.d., Why Fans Matter in Transmedia Storytelling (Online), last accessed: 26 March 2014, <http://hahatransmedia.tumblr.com/post/63597980163/why-fans-matter-in-transmedia-storytelling&gt;

Dena, C. (2014) “Chapter 1” Transmedia Primer commissioned by RMIT PP1.14

Dowd, T. Michael Fry, Michael Niederman, Josef Steiff (2013). Storytelling Across Worlds: Transmedia for Creatives and Producers. New York: Focal Press (p.3-32)

Gallegos, E. (2012), Speculation Friday: The Star Wars Saga Continues in VideoGameologists (Online), last accessed: 25 March 2014, <http://www.videogameologists.com/2012/11/02/speculation-friday-the-star-wars-saga-continues&gt;

Gambarato, R. R. (2012). “Signs, systems and complexity in transmedia storytelling” Estudos em Comunicação, Vol.12, (p.69-83).

Geigner, T (2012), Will Disney Block Star Wars Fan-Made Content? (Online), last accessed: 26 March 2014, <http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20121101/13355120910/will-disney-block-star-wars-fan-made-content.shtml&gt;
Gomez, J (2013), Here Are the 5 Things That Make a Good Transmedia Project (Online), last accessed: 26 March 2014, <http://www.indiewire.com/article/here-are-the-5-things-that-make-a-good-transmedia-project&gt;

Goodreads (2008), The Han Solo Adventures by Brian Daley, last accessed: 26 March 2014, <https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/617085.The_Han_Solo_Adventures&gt;

Jenkins, H. (2008) “Ch.3 Searching for the origami unicorn; The Matrix and transmedia storytelling” Convergence Culture; where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press. (p.95-134, 302-305)

Jenkins, H. (2009) Revenge of the Origami Unicorn: The Remaining Four Principles of Transmedia Storytelling, last accessed 28 March, 2014, <http://henryjenkins.org/2009/12/revenge_of_the_origami_unicorn.html#sthash.8FczgnlI.dpuf&gt;

Jenkins, H. (2011), Seven Myths About Transmedia Storytelling Debunked in Fast Company (Online), last accessed: 27 March 2014, <http://www.fastcompany.com/1745746/seven-myths-about-transmedia-storytelling-debunked&gt;

Jenkins, H (2013), T is for Transmedia (Online), last accessed: 26 March 2014, <http://henryjenkins.org/2013/03/t-is-for-transmedia.html&gt;

Jenkins, H. (2009) The Revenge of the Origami Unicorn: Seven Principles of Transmedia Storytelling (Well, Two Actually. Five More on Friday), last accessed 28 March, 2014, <http://henryjenkins.org/2009/12/the_revenge_of_the_origami_uni.html#sthash.DRUTnCw6.dpuf&gt;

Jenkins, H. (2010), Transmedia Storytelling and Entertainment: An annotated syllabus in Continuum: Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, 24, 6, pp. 943-958, Communication & Mass Media Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 March 2014.

Knowledge@Wharton (2012), Transmedia Storytelling Fan Culture and the Future of Marketing (Online), last accessed: 26 March 2014, <http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/transmedia-storytelling-fan-culture-and-the-future-of-marketing/&gt;

Moloney, K. (2011), Principles of Transmedia in Transmedia Journalism (Online), last accessed: 27 March 2014, <http://transmediajournalism.org/contexts/principles-of-transmedia&gt;

NYUTRANSMEDIATV (2013), The Importance of Fans in Transmedia (Online), last accessed: 26 March 2014, <http://nyutransmediatv.tumblr.com/post/67339716575/the-importance-of-fans-in-transmedia&gt;

Phillips, A. (2012) “What is Transmedia Anyway?” A creator’s guide to transmedia storytelling : how to captivate and engage audiences across multiple platforms. New York : McGraw-Hill (p. 13-19)

Wikipedia, (2014) Star Wars, last accessed 28 March, 2014 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Wars&gt;

Wikipedia (2005), Star Wars opening crawl, last accessed: 25 March 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Wars_opening_crawl&gt;

Wookieepedia (2008), 13,000,000,000 BBY, last accessed 28 March, 2014 <http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/13,000,000,000_BBY&gt;

Wookieepedia (2005), Aurebesh, last accessed 28 March, 2014 <http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Aurebesh&gt;

Wookieepedia (2007), The Essential Atlas, last accessed: 26 March 2014, <http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/The_Essential_Atlas&gt;

Wookieepedia (2005), The Galaxy, last accessed: 27 March 2014, <http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/The_galaxy&gt;

Wookieepedia (2005), Holocron continuity database, last accessed: 25 March 2014, <http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Holocron_continuity_database&gt;

Wookieepedia (2005), Star Wars: Empire: Volume Three: The Imperial Perspective, last accessed: 25 March 2014, <http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Star_Wars:_Empire:_Volume_Three:_The_Imperial_Perspective&gt;

Wookieepedia (2007), Timeline of Galactic History, last accessed 28 March, 2014 <http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Timeline_of_galactic_history&gt;